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Book Code: 9788121213455

Dr. Sonu Trivedi

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The 2015 verdict in Myanmar witnessed first free and fair democratic elections after a gap of six decades. This beckons a new era of democracy and civilian rule in Myanmar. Although, we see a new political dynamics emerging in Myanmar ,nevertheless, the stability and survival of the regime would rest on constitutional reforms, deepening of democracy and its consolidation . In the last quarter of the twentieth century, significant researches and numerous literatures have proliferated on the study of transition from authoritarianism to democracy. These writings have been noteworthy in shaping our understanding of the process of democratisation.

With this background, the book looks into the progress and prospects for democratisation in Myanmar. Attempt has been made here, to examine the authority structure and institutional architecture which has developed in Myanmar and trace its political history since independence. The book also identifies the internal crisis and contradictions in the regime and its role in 'guided' transition and establishment of a 'disciplined' democracy in Myanmar. Finally it studies the emerging political dynamics and the challenges of change in Myanmar.


Dr. Sonu Trivedi is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Political Science , Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi since 2006. She was a
student of Political Science at Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi and completed her PhD from School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Her research is focussed on Southeast Asia--Myanmar being her core area of interest. She has been following political developments in
Myanmar since more than a decade and have contributed extensively by means of articles and research paper to newspapers, magazines and journals on the current political developments and the critical changes taking place in the country.


Acknowledgements . 7

List of Acronyms . 9

Burmese Terms . 13

List of Figures . 15

List of Tables . 17

1. Introduction. 19
• Significance of the Study • Methodology • Structure of the Book • References.

2. Democratisation: Theoretical Paradigm . 31
• Stages of Democratisation • Trends for Democratisation • Globalisation • Democratic Values and Human Security • Transnational Actor • Mass-media
• Regional Influence • Mixed Cases of Authoritarian and Democratic Regimes • Hybrid regimes • Electoral Authoritarianism • Delegative Democracies
• Electoral Democracies • Illiberal Democracies • Semi-Democracies • Competitive Authoritarianism • Semi-authoritarianism • Pseudo-Democracies
• Disciplined Democracy in Myanmar • Legislature • Judiciary • Elections • The Media • References.

3. Political History of Myanmar Since Independence . 71
• Post Colonial Developments • Parliamentary Democracy • Caretaker Government • Establishment of Military Rule: 1962–1974 • Constitutional Dictatorship: BSPP Rule: 1974–1988 • Military Junta: SLORC 1988–1997 • SPDC Regime: 1998—2008 • Military Roadmap to Disciplined Democracy • References.

4. Authority Structure of Military in Myanmar . 111
• Autocratic Military Framework in Myanmar • Socio-Political Roots of Authoritarianism in Myanmar • Burmese Political Values • Theoretical foundation of Military in Myanmar • Justification of Military in Myanmar • Institutions of Political Architecture in Myanmar • State Apparatus • Economy • Party Machinery
• Armed Forces • References.

5. Delayed Democracy in Myanmar . 145
• Internal Crisis and Contradictions • Monks and Sang has • Students and Protest Movements • NLD and Political leadership of Aung San Suu Kyi
• Generational Transition in the Military • Civil Society • Delayed Democracy in Myanmar • Economic Mismanagement • Refusal to accept the Popular Mandate • Ethnic Conflict • Military Purges and Strategies • The Closed Media • References.

6. Democratic Transition and Reconciliation . 171
• Progress and Prospects: 2008 onwards • Reform Agenda of the New Regime • Challenges of Democratisation in Myanmar • Political and Ethnic Reconciliation • International Isolation • Human Rights Abuse • Economic Reforms • Battleground for Capitalist Penetration • Environmental Hazards and threat to Bio-diversity • Changing Power Dynamics in Myanmar • Hardliners and Reformists • Aung San Suun Kyi and the Military • NLD vis-à-vis other Opposition Parties • Aung San Suu Kyi and the Internal Crisis in NLD • Ethnic Nationalities • Future Roadmap of Presidency • References.

7. Conclusion . 211
• Summary of the Central Arguments • Concluding Remarks • References.

References Cited . 223
• Primary Sources • Secondary Sources.0

Index . 243


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