MUGHAL ADMINISTRATION IN DECCAN UNDER AURANGZEB (AD. 1659-1707)

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Book Code: 1111025365996

DR. ZAKIR HUSAIN

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ABOUT THE BOOK

The work analyses the long span of Mughal Deccan for almost fifty years under Emperor Aurangzeb in almost two equal phases,(AD 1659 - 1682 & 1682 - 1707). Book stands out on two major counts: its exhaustive utlilisation of Aurangzeb's collection of letters in Ᾱdᾱb-i 'Ᾱlamgῑrῑ, for the period of Aurangzeb's viceroyalty; secondly, the exhaustive use of the documents in the Inayat Jung Collection, now at the National Archives of India, New Delhi. These documents throw new light on the issue of bejagiri, absence of paibaqi, influx of Deccani mansabdars and the question of jᾱgῑr crisis, pᾱibᾱqῑ and khᾱliṣa with its overall impact on the decline of the Mughal Empire.


The book puts in perspective the debate on the 'Deccan factor' and fall of the Mughal Empire. It also highlights revenue reforms of Murshid Quli Khᾱn at the grassroot level. Another highlight of the work is a reproduction and analysis of Aurangzeb's farmᾱn to Mirzᾱ Rᾱja Jai Singh in regard to annexation of twenty-three forts of Shivajῑ. Farmᾱn of Aurangzeb on the Escape of Rᾱja Rᾱm has been specifically studied which does show defeat and distraction of Shambhaji, flight of Raja Ram and his two letters requesting to surrender to the Mughal army.


The book offers an indepth study of pargana 'Ᾱdilabad with micro details of its 135 villages, whose geographical survey, means of irrigation, taxation and settlement pattern throws valuable light at micro level at a crucial period of the Mughal empire. The work is valuable to understand the superior right holders (zamῑndᾱrs, deshmukh, deshpᾱndiyas, qanūngo, desᾱῑ, sardeshmukh, sardesᾱῑ, muqaddam and patel etc.).


The work demonstrates that all attempts to conqueror Deccan could not be seen as a matter of choice but, practically for Aurangzeb, it became a matter of compulsion. The book deals with pressure of the Marathas but highlights that it was secondary to the economic considerations of the Empir

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

ZAKIR HUSAIN, retired as Assistant Director (Oriental Records), National Archives of India. An alumnus of the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, from where he obtained his higher education and training in shikasta script and archival research. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from Indira Gandhi Open National University, New Delhi.


Besides contributing several research papers, based on the original records in the repositories of National Archives of India, he has edited several Catalogues of the Oriental Records and Acquired Documents at the Archives. A collection of his research papers was published as Medieval India: Studies in Polity, Economy and Society (Fourteenth-Nineteenth Centuries), New Delhi, Primus,2019.


In collaboration with Iran Culture House, he has also published the critical editions of the Persian text like Shigurfnama-i Velayat, Razmnamah, Ilaj-ut Tuyur and a Selection from the 'Inayat Jung Collection.

CONTENTS

Preface......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

SECTION [A] [1659-1682]
1. The Deccan Viceroyalty in the Last Years of Shāh Jahān...............................................................................................................................................37
(i) Limits and Territorial Divisions, (ii) Main Officials,
(iii) The Jāgīr Assignments: Problems of Low-Monthly Jāgīrs,
(iv) Revenue and Financial Administration.
2. The Deccan Provinces [1659-1682]...................................................................................................................................................................................59
(i) The Viceroys, (ii) Other Provincial Officers,
(iii) Local Administration.
3. Army Organisation and Deployment in the Deccan.........................................................................................................................................................77
(i) Mansab and Jāgīr Assignments, (ii) Control Over Mansabdārs’ Contingents, (iii) Forts, (iv) Bargīs
4. Revenue and Financial Administration...........................................................................................................................................................................101
(i) Khālisa and Pāibāqī, (ii) Land Revenue Assessment and Realisation, (iii) The Deshmukhs, Desāīs and Other Zamīndārs
SECTION [B] [1682-1707]
5. Expansion of the Mughal Power in the Deccan [1682-1707]..........................................................................................................................................123
(i) Territorial Expansion and Creation of New Sūbās,
(ii) Administrative Problems of the Newly Conquered Areas,
(iii) Assignment in the Newly Conquered Areas
6. Provincial Administration....................................................................................................................................................................................................153
(i) Emperor as Viceroy of Deccan?
(a) Financial Difficulties, (b) Pressure on Resources: Situation
of the Pāibāqī, (c) Pressure on Jāgīrs, (d) Low Income from
Jāgīrs, (e) Jāgīr Assignments (f) Faujdāri Rights and Jurisdictions, (g) Local Administration, (h) Maintenance of Military Contingent and (i) Conclusion
(ii) Nāzims and Faujdārs
(iii) Other Sūba Officials
(a) Dīwān, (b) Bakhshī, (c) Fauj‘dār, (d) Qila‘dār and Thānadār, (e) Qazi, Sạ̄dr, Muhtasib, (f) Local Administration
7. Land Revenue and Taxes................................................................................................................................................................................................195
(i) Problems of Revenue Collection
(a) Geographical Survey, (b) Means of Irrigation,
(c) Taxation and Settlement, (d) Conclusion
(ii) Jizya
(iii) Other Taxes
8. Problems of the Zamīndārs.................................................................................................................................................................................................225
(i) The Different Forms of Zamīndārs, (ii) Pālīgārs and
Marathas, (iii) Others
9. The Question of Jāgīr Crisis..............................................................................................................................................................................................268
(i) Pāibāqī & Khālisa, (ii) Income from Jāgīr Assignments
10. The Great Famine and Mughal Administration.............................................................................................................................................................283
11. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................................................................................296
Appendices..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................300
Appendix-A- Aurangzeb’s First Viceroyalty of the Deccan.
Appendix-B- Farmān of Aurangzeb, 1665.
Appendix-C- Revenue Statistics of Pargana ‘Ādilābād [sarkār Asir, sūba Khandesh].
Appendix-D- An Opening to Rājarām? A farmān of Aurangzeb.
Bibliogoraphy........................................................................................................................................................................................................................329
Maps

MAP: Mughal India, 1658 A.D.
MAP: Mughal Provinces of the Deccan under Shāh Jahān,
1658 A.D.
Farmān of Aurangzeb, 1689 A.D.
MAP: The Deccan, 1689 A.D.
MAP: Expansion of the Mughal Power in the Deccan
under Aurangzeb, 1707 A.D.
MAP: Pargana Ādilābād.
Glossary................................................................................................................................................................................................................................337
Index.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................347


 

 


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