Comparative Analysis of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Philosophies

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Book Code: 1111024788982

Prof. (Dr.) Jai Pai Paul Dudeja

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ABOUT THE BOOK

One can divide this voluminous book titled, “Comparative Analysis of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Philosophies”, consisting of 37 chapters, into five broad sections. The first section (chapter 1) consists of 'Introduction'. The second section consisting of 18 chapters (chapters 2-19), deals with Hindu Philosophy. The third section, consisting of 8 chapters (chapters 20-27) describes the Buddhist Philosophy. The fourth section, consisting of 8 chapters (chapters 28-35) deals with Jain Philosophy. The fifth and the final section, consisting of 2 chapters (chapters 36-37) compares the philosophical aspects (similarities and differences) between these religions.

The author sincerely believes that a book of this nature comparing the similarities and differences between the three major Asian religions (that is, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism) will add to the value and knowledge of the eager readers. It will be useful as a text book for the students, a reference source for the research scholars studying comparative philosophies of religions, and finally to a large section of general readers across the globe.

 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Prof. (Dr.) Jai Paul Dudeja (born in June, 1948) has been in regular employment as a Scientist, Professor, Dean, Director, Principal and a Senior Administrator in various educational institutions, universities, laboratories, public and private organizations. He superannuated as a Senior Scientist in May 2008 from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Government of India. After DRDO, he served for over 11 years, till his last posting as a Director at Amity University Gurgaon, from where he retired in Nov 2019.

Till date, Dr. Dudeja has published/ presented about 90 research papers in various national and international journals/conferences. Out of these, 21 research papers are on spirituality and consciousness etc. Besides this, he has authored following eight books on spirituality:
1. Gayatri Mantra: A GPS to Enlightenment,
2. Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra: An Invincible Armour for Conquering Death
3. Ajapa-Japa Sohum-Humsa Mantra: An Eternal Mantra for Inner Consciousness
4. The Third Eye: A Spiritual Laser for Stimulating Inner Awakening
5. Quantum Physics of Consciousness and Non-Duality In Eastern Philosophy
6. Quantum Science of Love, Healing, Happiness, and Bliss in Ancient Wisdom
7. Chakras Healing and Kundalini Awakening by Yogic Techniques,
8. Meditation Practices across the Globe and their Beneficial Effects.
Dr. Dudeja has delivered many invited lectures in international conferences on Spirituality in India and abroad.


CONTENTS

Preface 11
Acknowledgements 15
SECTION - 1: INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction And Overview 19
1.1 What is Religion? 1.2 What is the Purpose of Religion? 1.3 What is Theology? 1.4 Philosophy of Religion 1.5 What is the difference between Philosophy and Religion? 1.6 What is the difference between Theology and Philosophy?
1.7 Which are the Major Indian Religions? 1.8 Comparison between Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Philosophies.
SECTION - 2: HINDU PHILOSOPHY
2. Introduction to Hindu Philosophy 39
2.1 Classifications in Hindu Philosophy 2.2 Epistemology or Pramana
2.3 Sāmkhya Philosophy 2.4 Yoga Philosophy 2.5 Vaisheshika 2.6 Nyāya Philosophy 2.7 Mīmāmsā Philosophy 2.8 Vedānta Philosophy 2.9 Nāstika Classification of Schools.
3. Samkhya Philosophy 55
3.1 Introduction to Samkhya Philosophy 3.2 Purpose of Samkhya Philosophy 3.3 Philosophy of Samkhya 3.4 25 Tattvas (elements) in Samkhya Philosophy 3.5 Theory of Causation in Samkhya 3.6 The Samkhya Karika 3.7 Samkhya Philosophy in Mahabharata 3.8 Samkhya Philosophy in Bhagavad Gita.
4. Yoga Philosophy 69
4.1 Introduction to Yoga philosophy 4.2 Separate Darshana 4.3 The Eight-Fold Yoga (Ashtanga Yoga) Path of Patanjali 4.4 Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 4.5 Four Systems of Yoga.
5. Karma Yoga Philosophy 83
5.1 Introduction to Karma Yoga 5.2 Three Types of Karma 5.3 More on Karma Yoga.
6. Bhakti Yoga Philosophy 97
6.1 Introduction to Bhakti Yoga 6.2 Narada Bhakti Sutras 6.3 Bhakti Yoga in Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 12) 6.4 Origin of Narada Bhakti Sutras.
7. Raja Yoga Philosophy 109
7.1 Introduction to Raja Yoga (Kingly Science or Kingly Secret) 7.2 Raja Yoga in Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 9).
8. Jnana Yoga Philosophy 115
8.1 Introduction to Jnana Yoga 8.2 Jnana Yoga in Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 2)
8.3 Seven Stages of Jnana 8.4 More on Jnana Yoga.
9. Nyaya Philosophy 127
9.1 Introduction to Nyaya Philosophy 9.2 Purpose of Nyaya Philosophy 9.3 Sixteen Categories (padārthas) in Nyaya Philosophy 9.4 More on Nyaya Philosophy 9.5 On God and Salvation 9.6 Self and Liberation 9.7 An Established Tenet (Siddhanta) 9.8 Nyaya Sūtras 9.9 Commentaries 9.10 Futility 9.11 Disagreement in Principle (Nigrahasthana) 9.12 Nyaya and Navyanyaya.
10. Vaisheshika Philosophy 143
10.1 Introduction to Vaishashika Philosophy 10.2 Categories or Padārtha
10.3 Vaiśesika Sūtra 10.4 Atomic Theory in Sutras of Vaishashika Philosophy.
11. Purva Mimansa Philosophy 159
11.1 Introduction to Purva Mimansa 11.2 Jaimini 11.3 Mimansa Darshana (Philosophy) 11.4 Epistemology of Mimansa 11.5 Jaimini’s Mimansa Sutras
11.6 Contents of Mimansa Sutras 11.7 Relevance of Mimansa to Ayurveda.
12. Vedanta Philosophy 177
12.1 Introduction to Vedanta Philosophy 12.2 Common Features of Vedanta Philosophy 12.3 Prasthanatrayi (The Three Sources) 12.4 Metaphysics of Vedanta 12.5 Epistemology 12.6 Overview of the Main Schools of Vedanta.
13. Bhedabheda Vedanta Philosophy 185
13.1 Introduction to Bhedabheda Vedanta Philosophy 13.2 Ontology 13.3 Causality 13.4 Theology and Soteriology.
14. Advaita Vedanta Philosophy 197
14.1 Biography of Adi Shankaracharya 14.2 Gaudapada, Adi Shankara (Advaita Vedanta) (6th-9th centuries) 14.3 Moksha – Liberation 14.4 Mahavakyas – The Great Sentences and the Advaitic Theme 14.5 Need of a Guru 14.6 Levels of Reality – Truths 14.7 Three States of Consciousness and Turiya 14.8 ‘Atma Bodha’ Book by Adi Shankara 14.9 ‘Aparoksh Anubhuti’ (Self-Realisation) Book by Adi Shankara 14.10 Vivekachudamani Book by Adi Shankaracharya 14.11 ‘Brahma Sūtras Bhashya’ book by Adi Shankara.
15. Vishishtadvaita Vedanta Philosophy 217
15.1 Introduction to Vishishtadveta Vedanta Philosophy 15.2 Philosophers
of Vishishtadveta 15.3 Key Principles of Vishishtadvaita 15.4 Epistemology
15.5 Metaphysics of Vishishtadveta 15.6 Theory of Existence in Vishishtadveta 15.7 Interpretation of Mahāvākyas 15.8 Truth, Error and Avidya.
16. Dvaita Vedanta Philosophy 231
16.1 Introduction to Dvaita Vedanta 16.2 Madhvacharya 16.3 Philosophy of Dvaita Vedanta 16.4 Metaphysics of Dvaita Vedanta 16.5 Purushartha 16.6 Sadhana, Means of Attainment 16.7 Adi Shankaracharya, Ramanuja and Madhvacharya in Vedanta Philosophy.
17. Shuddhadvaita Vedanta Philosophy 247
17.1 Introduction to Shuddhadvaita Vedanta 17.2 Philosophy of Shuddhadvaita Vedanta 17.3 Tattvarth Deep Nibandha 17.4 Avikrataparinaamavaada 17.5 God, Souls and Matter 17.6 Pushtimaarga.
18. Neo-Vedanta Philosophy 257
18.1 Neo-Vedanta 18.2 Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902) and Ramakrishna Mission 18.3 Neo-Vedanta Philosophy as proposed by Swami Vivekananda.
19. Kashmir Shaivism Philosophy 269
19.1 Introduction to Kashmir Shaivism 19.2 Three Broad Divisions: Agama, Spanda and Pratyabhijna Shastra 19.3 Tattvas in Kashmir Shaivism 19.4 Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara vs Kashmir Shaivism SECTION 3 (BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY).
SECTION - 3: BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY
20. Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy 291
20.1 Gautama Buddha 20.2 20.2 Four Noble Truths – Dukkha and its Ending in Buddhism 20.3 The Cycle of Rebirth in Buddhism 20.4 Moksha and Nirvana in Buddhism 20.5 Pratītyasamutpāda and Twelve Nidānas in Buddhism 20.6 Anātman and Śūnyatā in Buddhism 20.7 The Three Jewels in Buddhism 20.8 Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path to Liberation in Buddhism 20.9 Theravada Path in Buddhism 20.10 Mahayana Path in Buddhism 20.11 Common Buddhist Practices 20.12 Restraint and Renunciation 20.13 Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension 20.14 Meditation – Samādhi and Dhyāna 20.15 Tibetan Tantric Practice and Vajrayana & Tantra Techniques 20.16 Practice: Monks, Laity 20.17 Prajñā, Bodhi, Kenshō, Satori, Subitism, and Vipassana 20.18 Devotion in Buddhism.
21. The Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path 317
21.1 The Four Noble Truths 21.2 Full Set - Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
21.3 Explanation of the Four Truths 21.4 Tanhā 21.5 The Noble Eightfold Path 21.6 Explanation of The Noble Eightfold Path.
22. Thervada Philosophy 341
22.1 History of Theravada Philosophy 22.2 Texts in Theravada 22.3 Core Teachings of Theravada 22.4 Abhidhamma Philosophy 22.5 Cosmology 22.6 Soteriology and Buddhology 22.7 Main Doctrinal Differences with Other Buddhist Traditions
22.8 Lay and Monastic life 22.9 The Goal.
23. Mahayana Philosophy 363
23.1 Introduction To Mahayana 23.2 Origins of Mahāyāna 23.3 Early Mahāyāna 23.4 Growth of Mahāyāna Movement 23.5 Expansion of Mahāyāna Movement Outside India 23.6 Later Developments in Mahāyāna 23.7 Worldview about Mahāyāna Buddhism 23.8 The Buddhas and Bodhisattvas 23.9 The Bodhisattva Path 23.10 Skillful means and the One Vehicle 23.11 Prajñāpāramitā (Transcendental Knowledge) 23.12 Madhyamaka (Centrism) 23.13 Vijñānavāda (The Consciousness Doctrine) 23.14 Buddha-Nature 23.15 Arguments for Authenticity 23.16 Mahayana Practice 23.17 Mahayana Scriptures 23.18 Classifications 23.19 Relationship with the Early Texts 23.20 Contemporary Mahāyāna Buddhism 23.21 Ten Disputed Practices in Mahayana 23.22 Mahāyāna and Hinayāna.
24. Vajrayana Philosophy 393
24.1 Introduction to Vajrayana 24.2 History of Vajrayana 24.3 Tantras in Buddhism 24.4 Relationship to Shaivism 24.5 Philosophical Background 24.6 Place within Buddhist Tradition 24.7 Characteristics of Vajrayana 24.8 Tantra Techniques.
25. Concept of Karma and Rebirth in Buddhism 407
25.1 Buddhist Understanding of Karma 25.2 Karma in the Pali suttas 25.3 Karma within Buddhist Traditions 25.4 Karma in Theravādin Tradition 25.5 Karma in Mahayana Tradition 25.6 Concept of Rebirth in Buddhism 25.7 Historical Context of Rebirth 25.8 Life after Death According to Buddhism 25.9 Samsāra 25.10.

26. Pure Land Buddhism 425
26.1 Introduction to Pure Land Buddhism 26.2 Early History of Pure Land Buddhism 26.3 Meditation 26.4 Going to the Pure Land 26.5 Variance Between Traditions 26.6 Synopses of the Three Sutras.
27. Taking Refuge in the Three Jewels in Buddhism 439
27.1 What is Taking Refuge in the Three Jewels? 27.2 Different Levels of the Three Jewels 27.3 Recitation in Pali 27.4 Faith 27.5 Five Precepts 27.6 Three Jewels and Three Roots.
SECTION - 4: JAIN PHILOSOPHY
28. Introduction to Jain Philosophy 447
28.1 Introduction to Jainism 28.2 History of Jainism 28.3 Important Figures of Jain Legend 28.4 Doctrines of Jainism 28.5 Monasticism: Jainism 28.6 Religious Activity of the Laity (lay people, as distinct from the clergy) 28.7 Image Veneration 28.8 Festivals 28.9 Jain Literature.
29. Svetambara and Digambara Sects in Jainism 467
29.1 Two Schools of Thought in Jainism 29.2 Śvētāmbara 29.3 History of Svetambaras and Digambaras 29.4 Digambara 29.5 History of Digambaras
29.6 Lineage of Digambaras 29.7 Scripture and Literature of Digambaras
29.8 Monks and Nuns of Digambaras 29.9 Difference Between Svetambara and Digambara.
30. Anekantavada Philosophy in Jainism 477
30.1 Introduction to Anekantavada 30.2 Philosophical Overview of Anekāntatva 30.3 Jiva, the changing soul views in Jainism 30.4 Inclusivist or Exclusivist 30.5 History and Development 30.6 More on Anekāntavāda.
31. Agamas and Purvas in Jainism 491
31.1 Agamas in Jainism 31.2 History of Agamas in Jainism 31.3 Fourteen Purvas.
32. Ratnatrya (Three Jewels) in Jainism 499
32.1 Ratnatraya (Three Jewels) in Jainism 32.2 Ratnatraya (Three Jewels) in Jainism 32.3 Stages on the Path to Liberation (Gunasthana).
33. Mahvratas and Vratas in Jainism 505
33.1 The Five Maha-vratas (Great Vows) for Ascetics 33.2 Twelve Vows of Lay People (Shrävaks and Shrävikäs).
34. Mula Sutras in Jainism 515
34.1 Mūla-sūtras 34.2 Mūla-sūtra-1: Daśa-vaikālika-sūtra: Fundamental Teachings 34.3 Mūla-sūtra-2: Uttarādhyayana-sūtra: Basic concepts and Legends 34.4 Mūla-sūtra-3: Āvaśyaka-sūtra: Six Obligatory Duties 34.5 Mūla-sūtra-4: Pinda-niryukti and Ogha-niryukti: Collecting Alms.
35. Moksha (Liberation) in Jainism 525
35.1 Moksha in Jainism 35.2 Bhavyata 35.3 The Path to Liberation 35.4 Nirvāna 35.5 Liberated Soul 35.6 Difference between Moksha in Jainism and Nirbana in Buddhism 35.7 Two Categories of Moksha in Jainism 35.8 Karma Philosophy: Nine Tattvas SECTION 5 (COMPARISON BEWEEN HINDU, BUDDHIST AND JAIN PHILOSOPHIES).
SECTION - 5: COMPARISON BETWEEN HINDU,
BUDDHIST AND JAIN PHILOSOPHIES
36. Similarities between Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Philosophies 539
36.1 Universal ‘OM’ Mantra in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism 36.2 ‘OM’ is PRIMORDIAL 36.3 ‘OM’ is APAURUSHEYA 36.4 ‘OM’ is PERENNIAL
36.5 ‘OM’ is UNIVERSAL 36.6 ‘OM’ in Hinduism 36.7 ‘OM’ in Buddhism
36.8 ‘OM’ in Jainism 36.9 Summary of Similarities Between Buddhism and Jainism 36.10 Jainism in Buddhist Texts 36.11 Similarities between Buddhism and Hinduism 36.12 Gautama Buddha in Hinduism 36.13 Highlights of Similarities between Jainism and Hinduism 36.14 Rama in Jainism 36.15 Krishna’s Influence on Jainism.
37. Differences between Hindu, Buddhist and Jain Philosophies 563
37.1 Differences between Hinduism and Buddhism 37.2 Highlights of Differences between Hinduism and Buddhism 37.3 Differences between Hinduism and Jainism 37.4 Differences between Jainism and Buddhism 37.5 Highlights of Differences between Jainism and Buddhism.
Bibliography 575
Index 579


 

 


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