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Book Code: 9789386397829

Priyanka Dhakate, Md Aminul Islam

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The present book focusses on modern approaches in plant research towards trait improvement. The articles contributed in the present book are contributed by eminent research scholars who are actively involved in respective crop improvement programs spanning various universities and institutions in India.

The book presents various molecular approaches that provide different dimensions to plant research in India. While the chapters are focused towards plant trait improvement, the concepts illuminated are explained to aid prime the reader into understanding these approaches with ease. The concepts focused range from basic molecular biology to marker assisted breeding and use of artificial miRNA technology in crop trait improvement. This book shall aid academicians, policy makers, researchers, Ph.D. scholars, etc. .


Dr. Priyanka Dhakate did her BSc (Botany), MSc (Botany) and M.Phil. (Botany) from Delhi University. She was awarded PhD from TERI University, New Delhi. She is presently a SERB-National Post Doc fellow at National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi. Her academic achievements and research findings are published internationally.

Dr. Md Aminul Islam did his MSc (Botany) from Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam. He was awarded PhD by TERI University, New Delhi. He is presently working as a SERB- National Postdoctoral Fellow at National Institute of Plant Genome Research Institute. He has over nine years research experience and his academic credentials are acknowledged internationally.


List of Contributors . 7

Preface . 9

Acknowledgements . 10

1. Spot Blotch Disease of Wheat: Present, Past and Future .11
• Introduction • Yield loss • Synonyms • Symptoms and identification of pathogen on host plant • Disease assessment • Variability in the pathogen population
• Source of variability in the pathogen • Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Importance of Spot Blotch • Biology of Bipolaris Reproduction • Survival of Pathogen over season • Host Range • Epidemiology • Mode of infection by Bipolaris • Disease Cycle • Toxins produced by Bipolaris • Mechanism of phytotoxins resistance • Morphological markers and traits associated with spot blotch disease resistance • Leaf angle • Leaf tip necrosis • Stay green • Spot blotch resistance and heat tolerance • Source of spot blotch disease resistance • Genetics of resistance • Markers and QTL for blotch resistance • Genes for spot blotch resistance • Breeding for spot blotch resistance • Breeding strategy • Marker assisted breeding for spot blotch resistance • Disease management
• Biological control • References.

2. An Overview of Markers used for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Capsicum . 63
• Introduction • Molecular marker • Morphological markers • Biochemical markers • DNA based markers • Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) • Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) • Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) • Simple sequence repeats (SSR)/Microsatellites • Single nucleotide
polymorphism (SNP) • Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) • Three endonuclease amplified fragment length polymorphism (TE-AFLP)
• Assessment of genetic diversity of Capsicum using molecular markers • Conclusion • References.

3. Engineering Pod Shatter Resistance in Crop Brassicas using Artificial miRNA Technology .81
• Introduction • Fruit Dehiscence: Molecular Mechanism • Key regulators determining pod shattering in Brassicas • Approaches to raise pod shatter resistant canola crops • The amiRNA technology • Conclusion • References.

4. Plant MicroRNA: Biogenesis and Role in SeedDevelopment . 99
• Introduction • Biogenesis of miRNAs in plants • Processing • Transport • RISC assembly and role of Argonaute proteins • Silencing • miRNA turnover
• Role of miRNA in seed development • Conclusion • References.

5. Development and Applications of Molecular Markers in Jatropha . 115
• Introduction • Genetic diversity studies in Jatropha • Inter-specific hybridization and development of linkage map in Jatropha • Development of microsatellite markers in Jatropha • Estimation of out crossing rates in Jatropha curcas • Oil content and lipid profiles in Jatropha • Conclusion • References.

6. Junk DNA: Its Role in Plant Gene Regulation and Crop Improvement. 145
• Introduction • Function of SSRs in genes • Junk DNA’ Topology and transcription • Summary • References.

7. Legume Breeding for Fungal Resistance: A lesson to Learn . 159
• Introduction • Biotic stress in legumes • Aschochyta blight • Fusarium wilt • Conclusions and future prospects • References.

8. Genetic Improvement of Pongamia pinnata: A potential Biodiesel Plant in India . 181
• Introduction • Energy security and renewable energy • Biofuels • Biodiesel • Beginning of biofuel initiatives in India • Pongamia as a potential biodiesel crop
• Studies on genetic diversity in Pongamia using molecular markers • Oil content and fatty acid analysis in Pongamia • Estimation of outcrossing rates in Pongamia • Population and association analysis in Pongamia • Conclusion • References.

Index . 201


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