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Book Code: 9789386397263

D.R. Kapoor, Puja Saigal

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The book is based on three significant themes namely, 'Qualitative Research Methodology', 'Public Policy' and 'Impact Analysis'. All qualitative research methods and techniques are explained in detail with practical examples. Selection of themes, identification of locale, formation of groups, procedures and techniques of sampling, generation of narrative and audio-visual data and validation of results are derived through active participation of actors. How researcher and actors as co-partners are inspired, informed and involved in research processes and endeavor to get the truth. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of data are conducted to get substantial evidence for the formulation or modification of existing public policy. New approaches to policy research are linked to complex problems, issues, and challenges. These have given rise to new methods of inquiry which allow deep-level interpretations beyond the surface-level reception of policy positions and statements. Policy planning is a perpetual search or in-depth analysis of data or wide range of data to get substantial evidence in order to devise actions for better results. Metric and non-metric techniques have been used to identify the impact. Pre and post period analysis of data provides cues for further actions. Preparation and presentation of a research report is one of the most important of research processes. It needs to address the audiences more effectively. .


Dr. D.R. Kapoor, M.A. (Eco), M.Ed., Ph.D., KAS, is formerly HOD Center for Educational Research, MIER, Jammu; and National Level Monitor, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. He has been awarded teacher fellowship by ICSSR, New Delhi (1982-1983). He is honored with d Rashtriya Gaurav Award in 2010 by India International Friendship Society, New Delhi.  He has four books to his credit namely 'Education and National Development', 'Hand-Book of Cooperative Audit,' 'Dynamics of Learning Organizations' and 'Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques'. He has completed ten projects and 20 research papers published in various National and International Journals.  Being a member of Kashmir Administrative Services, he has served in various capacities as Jt. Registrar Banking & Finance; Chief Executive Officer, KVIB (J&K); Addl. Secretary to Govt. of Jammu & Kashmir; and Jt. Commissioner & Commissioner, Jammu Municipal Corporation. He is a Guest Faculty Member of J & K Institute of Public Administration, Management and Rural Development (IMPA). At present, has been empanelled as Inspecting Authority (2017-20019) for MAEF by the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. He is also Chairman, Sahyog India (NGO) and Project Director-Sahyog & Brooke PEWU-Katra.

Ms. Puja Saigal is a post-graduate in commerce from the University of Jammu and M.Phil in Management. At present, she has been in teaching profession and has completed one research project and two research papers published in National and International Journals.


Foreword . 15

Preface . 17

Acknowledgements . 21

Structure of the Book . 23

1. Research Paradigms . 27
1.1 What is a Research Paradigm?
2. Qualitative Research: Meaning, Nature and Methodology . 45
2.1 What is Qualitative Research?
2.2 Cardinal Principles of Qualitative Research
2.5 Identification of Problem
2.6 Research Questions
2.7 Qualitative Toolbox
2.8 Qualitative Research Approach
2.9 Qualitative Investigation Design
2.10 Planning of Qualitative Research
2.11 Sampling
2.12 Tools and Techniques of Qualitative Research
2.13 Data Analysis
2.14 Interpretation
2.15 Styles of Writing
2.16 Criteria for Evaluation
2.17 Quantitative Verses Qualitative Method of Investigation
2.18 Seven Questions about Qualitative Research

3. Selection of Problem and its Sources . 73
3.1 Selection of Problem
3.2 Selection of the Problem should be Viewed from two angles
3.3 Sources

4. Review of Literature . 81
4.1 Use of the Empirical Literature about Earlier Research in the same or Similar Field
4.2 Review of Methodological Literature
4.3 Study of Theoretical and Empirical Literature for Contextualising, Comparison and Generalisation of Your Findings
4.4 Internet as Source of Information
4.5 Strategy for Review of Literature

5. Formulation of Research Proposal . 89
5.1 What Research is Intended
5.2 Research Question and Hypothesis
5.3 How the Research will be Done
5.4 Methodology
5.5 Standard Criteria
5.6 Analyses
5.7 Interpretation
5.8 Limitations and Delimitations

6. Research Design . 95
6.1 Research Design
6.2 Selection of Research Approach
6.3 Goals of the Study
6.4 Formulation of the Research Questions
6.5 Selection of Method
6.6 Design of Sampling Plan
6.7 Selection of Locale and Entering into the Field
6.8 Tools for the Collection of Data
6.9 Establishing Reliability and Validity
6.10 Criteria for Evaluating the Building of Theories
6.11 Analysis of Qualitative Data

7. Hypotheses/Research Questions . 107
7.1 Hypothesis
7.2 Hypotheses/Research Questions
7.3 Sources of Hypotheses/Research Questions
7.4 Importance of Hypothesis/Research Question

8. Sampling Procedures . 115
8.1 What is Population?
8.2 What is Sampling?
8.3 Sampling Methods in Qualitative Research
8.4 Gradual Definitions of the Sample Structure: Theoretical Sampling

9. Qualitative Tools and Techniques . 125
9.1 What is Focus Group Discussion?
9.2 Selection of Group
9.3 Processes of Focus Group Discussions
9.4 Limitations
9.5 Selection of Locale
9.6 Selection of Techniques
9.7 Analysis of Data
9.8 Criteria for Selecting Significant Change

10. Observation as a Research Tool . 133
10.1 Observation
10.2 Issues Regarding Observations
10.3 Participant Observations
10.4 Non-Participant Observation
10.5 Steps of Observations
10.6 Characteristics of Good Observation
10.7 Reliability of Observation
10.8 Uses and Advantages

11. Interview as a Research Tool . 147
11.1 Interview Schedule
11.2 Types of Interview
11.3 In-depth Interview
11.4 Group and Individual Interviews
11.5 Single Interviewer or Panel
11.6 The Ethnographic Interview
11.7 Conducting Interviews: Problems of Mediation and Steering
11.8 Narrative Interview
11.9 The Episode Interview
11.10 On-Line Interview
11.11 Steps for Conducting an Interview

12. Documents . 165
12.1 What are Documents
12.2 Types of Documents
12.3 Sources of Documents
12.4 Secondary Sources
12.5 Selecting Documents
12.6 The Practicalities of Using Documents

13. Diary as a Tool or Document. 171
13 Introduction
13.1 Diary Design
13.2 Data Quality and Response Rates
13.3 Collection of Data
13.4 Analysis of Data
13.5 Computer Software for Processing and Analysis
13.6 Limitations of Use of Diary as Research Tool

14. Electronic Tools for the Collection of Data. 183
14.1 VIDEO and FILM

15. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research .201
15.1 Reliability
15.2 Validity
15.3 Procedural Validity
15.4 Trustworthiness, Credibility, Dependability
15.5 Procedural Dependability (Auditing)
15.6 Procedure can more Generally be Summarised
15.7 Criteria for Evaluating the Building of Theories

16. Ethics in Research . 211
16. Ethics and Research
16.1 Building Blocks of Ethics in Research
16.2 Monitoring: Roles and Responsibility of Ethics Research Committee
16.3 Ethical Issues in Research Focus
16.4 Reporting Your Research
16.5 Recommendation of Committee on Ensuring the Utility and Integrity of Research Data in a Digital Age; National Academy of Science (2009)

17. Research and Policy Planning . 227
17.1 Research and Policy
17.2 Policy Planning
17.3 Characteristics of Policy Research
17.4 Methodological Issues
17.5 Policy Formulation, Execution and Impact Assessment
17.6 Public Policy Framework
17.7 Conceptual Framework for Policy Analysis

18. Policy Planning and Good Governance. 245
18. Goals of Policy
18.1 Good Governance: Issues and Strategies
18.2 Issues
18.3 Strategies

19. Participatory Research Approach. 255
19. What is Participatory Approach?
19.1 Research Design
19.2 Processes of Participatory Research
19.3 The Choice of Locale and Group
19.4 Participants Own Analysis
19.5 From Qualitative Understanding to Quantification of Results
19.6 Analysis of data should take note of the following Processes:
19.7 Most Significant Change (MSC)
19.8 Findings of Study of Women Empowerment of Block
Vijay-District Samba (J&K State) (Kapoor & Sharma,2016)

20. Social Audit: A Mechanism of Accountability . 267
20. What is Social Audit?
20.1 Scope of Social Audit
20.3 Main Objectives
20.4 Design of Social Audit
20.5 Outcomes
20.6 Methodology
20.7 Process of Focus Group Discussions
20.8 Analysis of Data

21. Ethnographic Research Method. 277
21.1 Nature of Ethnography Research
21.2 The Process of Ethnographic Research
21.3 Triangulation

22. Phenomenological Method . 293
22.1 Approaches
21.2 Gathering and Analysing Phenomenological Data
22.3 Reliability and Validity of Phenomenological Studies

23. Field Studies . 301
23.1 Focus is on
23.2 Area of Field Studies
23.3 Need and Importance of Field Study
23.4 Research Design
23.5 Conducting Field Study
23.6 Tools and Techniques of Qualitative Research
23.7 The Choice of Locale and Group

24. Mixed Methods Research . 315
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Steps of Mixed Methods Research

25. Grounded Theory . 321
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Elements of Grounded Theory
25.3 Preview
25.4 Conducting Grounded Theory
25.5 Methodology
25.6 Producing Relevant Data
25.7 Analysis of Data
25.8 Processes of Grounded Theory
25.9 Review of the Literature
25.10 Research Ethics in Grounded Theory Research
25.11 Write up Theory
25.12 Importance of Grounded Theory Research
25.13 Criteria for Grounded Theory Research

26. Ethnomethodology . 335
26.1 What is Ethnomethodology
26.1 Basic Methods and Assumptions
26.2 Design of Ethnomethodology

27. Case Study Method. 355
27 Case Study
27.1 Cardinal Principles of Case Studies
27.2 Identification of ‘a Case’ for Study
27.3 Selection of the Cases
27.4 Research Design
27.5 Conducting a Case Study
27.6 Collecting the Evidence
27.7 Analysing the Evidence
27.8 Characteristics of Good Case Study
27.9 Limitations

28. Sociometric Techniques . 363
28 Sociometry
28.1 Some Principles of Criterion Selection
28.2 Application of Sociometry in the Work-Setting
28.3 Sociogram Matrix
28.4 Sociogram
28.5 Sociometric Indices
28.6 Applications of Sociometry

29. Analysis of Qualitative Data . 373
29. Analysis of Qualitative Data
29.1 Elements of Qualitative Analysis
29.2 Process and Procedures
29.3 Analysis of Qualitative Data
29.4 Interactive Model of Data Analysis
29.5 Grounded Theory Analysis
29.6 Other Analytic Approaches in Qualitative Analysis
29.7 Interpretation
29.8 Software for Analysis of Qualitative Data
29.9 Identification of Most Significant Change
29.10 Methodology
29.11 What are Domains of Change?
29.12 How to Capture SC Stories
29.13 People's Own Analysis of Empowerment
29.14 Criteria for Selecting Significant Changes

30. Report Writing and Presentation . 395
30.1 Format of Research Report
30.2 Appendices
30.3 Bibliography
30.4 Style of Research Report
30.5 Reflexive Function of Writing
30.6 Language Style
30.7 Typing of the Research Report
30.8 Editing of the Research Report
30.9 Presentation

31. Evaluation . 407
30.1 Evaluation
31.2 Evaluation Strategies-based on the Purpose of
Evaluation can be Categorised into Formative and Summative Evaluation
31.3 Guiding Principles
31.4 Criteria for Evaluation of a Research Report, Articles, or Thesis
31.5 Allison Tong, Peter Sainsbury, Jonathan Craig (2007)
Checklist for the Evaluation of Qualitative Research

32. Criteria for Evaluating Quality of Research inEducation . 425
32.1 Models for Evaluating Research
32.2 Indiana University Model (1996)
32.3 The U.K's Research Assessment Exercise Model (1997)
32.4 Educational Research Evaluation Model (2001)
32.5 The National Research Council (USA) (2002)
32.6 National Assessment and Accreditation Council
(NAAC) (India-2004) : Criteria for Evaluating Quality in Educational Research
32.7 University of Washington Model (2006)
32.8 Model for Evaluating Qualitative or Quantitative Research in Education (2006)
32.9 Quality-based Research Model (University of Machigan, 2007)
32.10 A Systemic Approach for Evaluating Research in Education
32.11 Variables of Evaluation
32.12 Evaluation of Research Programmes and Publications
32.13 Institutional Assessment and Accreditation (Research Activities)

Index . 439

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