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Book Code: 9789380223261

Rohini Prasad, Sukanta Sarkar

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Environmental economics is concerned with the impact of economic activities on the environment, the significance of ecosystem to the economy, and suggests the appropriate ways of regulating economic activity, so that cosmic balance is achieved in the society. Environmental Economics can help us understand why many of the Earth's natural resources are under threat, and what we can do to address these threats. In recent years there has been growing concern about degradation and pollution of environment and climate change as they impact on future development of both the developing and developed countries. It is hoped that the present edition of this book will be beneficial to all concerned of the society, in general and students, lawyers, advocates, academicians, human rights institutions, researchers and NGOs working in economics field, in particular.


Professor Rohini Prasad is a Gold Medallist (MA, Ph.D) in economics and is currently working as Vice Chancellor, Sarguja University, Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh, India. Previously he was worked as a Professor and Head in the department of Economics with Dean of faculty of social science, at Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh. He has more than 32 years of teaching experience in the field of economics and 26 years of research work experience in the field of Tribal development, Rural Development, Sustainable environmental economics and social change etc. 30 Scholars of Ph.D. and 40 scholars of M. Phil have completed their degree under his supervision. Dr. Rohini Prasad has awarded two projects by UGC and one project by Indian Council of Social Science Research New Delhi. He has published more than one hundred research papers in national & international journals and four books accordingly. He has attended & contributed his research papers in more than two hundred conferences/ symposiums/workshop/seminars. He has designed new syllabus for the graduate & post graduate classes at the tenure of social science Dean and Chairman of board of studies. He has more than thirty years of administrative experience of the different posts like Dean of student's welfare and others experience of different committee in higher education. He is the member of executive council of Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur (C.G.).

Dr. Sukanta Sarkar (MA, PhD) is working as Associate Professor in Department of Economics, Gambella University, Gambella, Ethiopia, Africa. He did bachelor and master degree in Economics from Tripura University. He was awarded doctorate degree for his research work on socio-economic changes of rubber tappers in Tripura. He qualified UGC-NET Exam in December/2006. He presented more than thirty research papers in various seminars, conferences and symposiums. He has been published more than hundred research papers in foreign and national journals. He was previously worked as visiting lecturer in National Institute of Technology, Agartala and Tripura University. He has research interest in various topics like agricultural crisis, rural development, women empowerment, sustainable development and social problems.


Foreword . 7

Preface . 9

Acknowledgement. 11

Abbreviations. 13

Introduction . 17

PART – I Environmental Studies

1. Economics of Environment.. 23 • Definition of Welfare Economics • Criterion of Social Welfare • Bentham Criteria • Pareto Optimality Criteria • Marginal conditions of Pareto Optimality • The Optimum Distribution of Products among the Consumers: Efficiency in Exchange • The Optimum Allocation of Factors: Pareto Efficiency in Production • The Second-Order and Total Conditions of Pareto  ptimality • Kaldor-Hicks Compensation Criterion • Scitovsky Paradox • Scitovsky’s Double Criterion of Welfare • The Bergson Criterion • The problem of Second Best • Arrow’s Impossibility theorem • References.

2. Environment and Social Welfare . 45 • Definition of Social Welfare Function • Maximisation of Social Welfare • Public Goods • Private Goods • Market Failure • References.

3. Environmental Economics. 53 • Definition of Environmental Economics • Beneficiation of Environmental Economics • Relation between Environmental Economies and Economics • Ecological Economics • Resources Economics • Important Issues in Environmental Economies • Macro-Economic Policy and Environmental • Common Property Resources • References.

4. Theories of Externalities . 63 • Definition of Externalities • Positive Externality • Negative Externality • Economies and Diseconomies of Scale • External Cost • Marginal Social Cost • Marginal Private Cost • Pigovian Taxes and Subsidies • References.

5. Environmental Value . 75 • Definition of Environmental Value • Use Value • Option Value and Non Use Value • International Carbon Tax • Environment and WTO • References.

PART - II Economics of Social Sector

6. Pollution . 87 • Definition of Pollution • Classification of Pollution • Indian Perspectives • Control of Pollution • Air Pollution Control • Water Pollution Control • Soil Pollution Control • Pollution Control Strategies • Cost-Benefit Analysis • References.

7. Environmental Laws.. 119 • Environmental Laws • Protection of Environment • Vienna Convention • Montreal Protocol • Kyoto Protocol • Environment and Development • Sustainable Development • Population Growth • Global Warming • Climate Change • Green House Effect • References.

8. Resource . 221 • Definition of Resource • Classification of Resource • Renewable Resource • Hydropower • Bio-energy • Geothermal Energy • Solar Energy • Wind Energy • Hydrogen • Ocean Energy • Non-Renewable • Coal • Oil • Peat • Natural Gas • Nuclear Power • Optimum Use of Resources • Land Resources • Forest Resources • Social Forestry • Management of Common and Forest Land • Energy Efficiency • Environment Energy Taxation • Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana • Rural Electrification Policy • Government-owned Power Companies • Ministry of Power • Energy Conservation Act 2001 • Problems of Indian Power Sector • References.

9. Environmental Education . 271 • Definition of Environmental Education • Importance of Environmental Education • Economics of Environmental Education • Expenditure on Education • Productivity of Education • The Return of Education • Human-Capital • Physical Capital • Educational Reforms • Right of Education Act • References.

10. Climate Changes and Health Impact . 289 • Definition of Health • Determination of Healthcare • Malnutrition • Ocean Acidification • Health Issues of Neem Tree • Hepatitis B Virus • Human Life • Measures of Quality Changes • Inequalities in Health - Class and Gender • Human Development Index • Gender Development Index • Gender Empowerment Index • References.

11. Disaster Management . 305 • Types of Disaster • Objectives of Disaster Management • Disaster Management in India • Disaster Management Bill, 2005 • Disaster Management in Bangladesh • United Nations Efforts • Bibliography • Books/Manuscripts • Websites.

Bibliography . 313

Index .. 329

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