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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATION OF PRIMARY METABOLIC PATHWAYS
9789386397102

  
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Author Adhikarla S. Rao (A.S. Rao)
Year 2017
Binding Hardback
Pages 312
ISBN10, ISBN13 9386397102, 9789386397102
Short Description
The Title 'AN INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATION OF PRIMARY METABOLIC PATHWAYS written/authored/edited by Adhikarla S. Rao (A.S. Rao)', published in the year 2017. The ISBN 9789386397102 is assigned to the Hardcover version of this title. This book has total of pp. 312 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Kalpaz Publications. This Book is in English. The subject of this book is Health, Fitness & Dieting / Psychology & Counseling / Physiological Aspects.
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Untitled Document

ABOUT THE BOOK

Students who are in undergraduate programs either 3 year or 4 year programs or studying in 5 year integrated Post graduate programs in different disciplines, find it very difficult to get an over view / basics of metabolic regulation and in fact find it daunting to know all the details going through bulky text books. There are also students pursuing UG and PG programs in Engineering & Technology discipline related to Biotechnology. These students are not in need of exhaustive details but only the core details. In addition to students studying in regular mode in India there are many UG and PG programs in life sciences offered in a distance education mode also called correspondence courses. India has many distance education centers both in India and abroad which is likely to be further expanded. Further students appearing for oral interviews for advanced studies both within the country and by telephone/skype from foreign countries need the core concepts rather than exhaustive details. In particular this text would be highly useful for such students.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Professor A. S. Rao, has a PhD in Biochemistry from Haryana Agricultural University and served the same university for six years. Subsequently joined Bharathidasan University in 1989 and became Professor in 1999 and retired in 2011. During this period served as Syndicate member, Head of the Department of Biotechnology, and Chair, School of Life sciences .

Subsequently appointed as Honorary Professor for two years. Has nearly three decades of teaching experience, handling several courses in the broad field of Biochemistry and Biotechnology—for students from different backgrounds in Life sciences at Undergraduate and Post Graduate level. Further took special interest in Theoretical Biology and policy matters.

My interactions at different institutes at Switzerland, U.K, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Singapore have enlightened me about pedagogy, research and policy matters Cumulatively author has about 75 papers in all the above areas in International and National Journals. Policy papers have been published in a Book form along with Professor P. Tauro entitled—Thoughts on Higher Education.

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ................................................................................... 11

Preface .................................................................................................... 13

Foreword ................................................................................................. 17

Glossary .................................................................................................. 19

PART - I

BASIC CONCEPTS/TYPES OF METABOLIC REGULATION INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF ENZYME ACTIVITY/AMOUNTS

1. An Outline of Various Types of Metabolic Regulation................. 47
• Changes in substrate/metabolites concentration • Changes in pH • Reversible covalent modifications of enzymes/nonenzymatic proteins • Interconversion of dithiol (2SH) and disulfide (-S-S-) • Zymogen activation • Oligomerisation status • Regulation by compartmentalisation • Regulation by isoenzymes • Concept of futile/substrate cycles and Reciprocal regulation • Metabolism is interconnected • Regulation by cell signaling • Metabolic control analysis (MCA).

PART - II

REGULATION OF PATHWAYS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

2. Glycolysis .................................................................................... 57
• General Introduction • Regulation.

3. Gluconeogenesis .......................................................................... 65
• General Introduction • Gluconeogenic reactions – Bypassing the irreversible steps in glycolysis • Regulatory details of gluconeogenic enzymes.

4. Tricarboxylic acid/Citric acid/Krebs Cycle (Referred in the following discussion as TCA cycle) ............................................. 69
• General Introduction • Regulatory details of different enzymes • Energy production—Energy production in the TCA cycle occurs in several forms • GTP- Succinyl CoA synthetase catalyzes the reaction • Amphibolic nature and interrelationships with biosynthetic pathways of other metabolites.

5. Glyoxylate Cycle and its Regulation ............................................ 77

6. Oxidative Pentose Phosphate (OPP) Pathway .............................. 81
• General Introduction and functions • Pathway reactions and Regulatory details.

7. Regulation of Glycogen Degradation and Biosynthesis ............... 85
• General Introduction • Glycogen biosynthesis • Glycogen degradation • Regulation.

PART - III

REGULATION OF LIPID METABOLISM

8. Triacylglycerol and Fatty Acid Break down ................................. 91
• General Introduction • Hydrolysis of triacylglycerols • Fatty acid breakdown by Beta-oxidation • Alpha and Omega Oxidation.

9. Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis ................................ 99
• Fatty acid Biosynthesis • Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis • Salient regulatory details of Fatty acid and Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis and Break down • Pathway manipulation and applications.

10. Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Regulation ................................... 107

PART - IV

REGULATION OF AMINO ACID METABOLISM
11. General Introduction ................................................................... 115

12. Biosynthesis and Regulation of Glutamate Family Amino Acids (Glutamate, Glutamine, Proline and Arginine) ................. 119
• Glutamate • Glutamine • Proline • Arginine.

13. Regulation of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis ..................... 127
• General Introduction • Pathway • Phenylalanine • Tyrosine
• Tryptophan.

14. Regulation of Aspartate Family of Amino Acids—Aspartate, Asparagine, Methionine, Lysine, Threonine (Cysteine, Isoleucine) .................................................................................. 133
• Aspartate • Asparagine • Lysine, Methionine and Threonine • Isoleucine and Cysteine.

15. Branched Chain/Pyruvate Family of Amino Acids—Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine, Alanine (Alanine which is not a branched chain amino acids is also synthesized from pyruvate) ................ 139
• General Introduction • Pathway and Regulation • Alanine.

16. Regulation of Serine Family Amino Acids- (Serine, Glycine and Cysteine) ............................................................... 143
• Importance of serine, glycine and one carbon units (THF and 5, 10, methylene THF) • Serine/Glycine biosynthetic pathways • Serine • Regulation of Serine/Glycine biosynthetic pathways • Cysteine.

17. Histidine ..................................................................................... 149
• General Introduction • Regulation.

18. Strategies for Over Production of Amino Acids and other Metabolites ................................................................................ 151
• General Introduction • Strategies • Details of some of the strategies employed • Few Examples of Applications.

19. Urea Cycle ................................................................................. 159
• General Introduction • Biosynthesis • Regulation • Urea generation in plants.

PART - V

REGULATION OF NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM
20. Purine Biosynthesis .................................................................... 165
• General Introduction • Regulation • Salvage pathway.

21. Pyrimidine Biosynthesis............................................................. 169
• General Introduction • Regulation.

22. Conversion of Ribonucleotides into Deoxyribonucleotides ....... 173
• General Introduction • Reactions • Regulation of RNR • Formation of dTTP.

PART - VI

REGULATION OF FEW IMPORTANT METABOLIC PATHWAYS IN PLANTS

23. Calvin Cycle-C3, C4 and CAM Pathways.................................. 179
• General Introduction about photosynthesis • Regulation of Photosynthesis/Calvin cycle (C3) C4 and CAM and photorespiration pathways.

24. Sucrose and Starch Biosynthesis ................................................ 191
• Sucrose biosynthesis and regulation • Starch Biosynthesis and regulation • Starch degradation.

25. Nitrate Assimilation ................................................................... 195
• General Introduction and Pathway • Regulation.

26. Regulation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase ............................ 201
• Importance • Reaction and Regulation.

PART - VII

ZYMOGEN ACTIVATION, PROTEIN TARGETING AND PROTEIN TURNOVER

27. Zymogen Activation ................................................................... 205
• Conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin • Conversion of Chymotrypsinogen to Chymotrypsin • Conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin • Conversion of Pre-pro insulin to functional insulin.

28. Protein Targeting ........................................................................ 209
• Protein targeting • mRNA targeting.

29. Protein Degradation/Turnover .................................................... 213
• General Introduction and Importance of the process • Proteases are classified on the basis of several criteria • Features of a protein which determines its rate of degradation • Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation.

PART - VIII

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GENE REGULATION IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN MAMMALS ANDPLANTS

30. Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes ........................ 223
• Few Introductory Comments • Details of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are discussed together. Hence students be alert while reading • RNA interference (RNAi) • Antisense RNA’s • Translational and Post-translational control • Basic modes of regulation at operon level in prokaryotes • Control of Gene expression by DNA modification • Control of Gene expression by Histone modification • Role of Ribozymes.

31. Signal Transduction in Mammals ............................................... 239
• General Introduction -Signal Transduction (cell signaling) • General Details - Signal Transduction (cell signaling) in mammalian systems • Different Signal Transduction cascades • Nitric oxide (NO) • Other Transduction systems.

32. Signal Transduction in Plants ..................................................... 259
• General Introduction • Role of different principal hormones and other growth regulators and signals in signal transduction.

References ................................................................................... 277

Index ........................................................................................... 289

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