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Internal Migration from Odisha: A Reflection on KBK Districts

Author Narendra Kumar Behera
Year 2017
Binding Hardback
Pages 268
ISBN10, ISBN13 9351282414, 9789351282419
Short Description
The Title 'Internal Migration from Odisha: A Reflection on KBK Districts written/authored/edited by Narendra Kumar Behera', published in the year 2017. The ISBN 9789351282419 is assigned to the Hardcover version of this title. This book has total of pp. 268 (Pages). The publisher of this title is Kalpaz Publications. This Book is in English. The subject of this book is Sociology.
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Migration, both external and internal is a complex process. In this course of action people move from one place to another place for varied purposes, mainly for jobs and employments. This process varies due to distance and time factors. In course of migration there has been a significant change in the scenario of employment, income, standard of living and level of remittances.

The present work is an outcome of a comprehensive field work in the KBK region-the most backward and poverty stricken districts of Odisha. The present work is based on primary and secondary sources of data to present the socio-economic conditions of those people who are engaged in the process of seasonal internal migration which is of circular in nature. The study basically covers the distress seasonal-circular migration which is taking place since a long time. These migrants are called ‘dadan’ labour that are recruited through agents/dalals and sent to different southern states of India to work mainly in brick kilns. It focuses on the socio-economic conditions of migrant households, reasons for migration, process of recruitment and their problems at destination and the possible measures for their betterment. The study is a regional analysis in particular but has a general implication on the problems of internal migration prevailing in other part of the country. The genesis of internal labour migration, reasons, estimates, magnitude and effects have been analysed in the national perspectives only. The study has immense significance to the researchers, policy makers, administrators and social scientist having interest for the down trodden section of population of the society and common men interested in the problems of an under-developed region like KBK.


Dr. Narendra Kumar Behera (b.1960) educated in G.M. College, Sambalpur, Odisha. He has been awarded Ph. D. from Sambalpur University in 2009. Dr. Behera has published a book entitled ‘Displacement, Resettlement and Rehabilitation in 2011. He has a number of publications of articles in national level journals and has contributed articles to different edited books. His writings cover the areas of development economics. He has completed two Major Research Projects supported by UGC and ICSSR. The present book is an outcome of ICSSR supported project, based on extensive field study. He has contributed papers and participated in number of national and international seminars. He was a senate member of Sambalpur University. He is a life member of Odisha Economic Association.


List of Tables . 9
List of Figures . 11
Foreword. 13
Preface . 17
Acknowledgements . 21
Abbreviation. 23

1. Introduction . 25
1.1 The Background, 1.2 The “laws” of Migration, 1.3 Defining Migration, 1.4 A General Typology of Internal-Migration, 1.5 Decision to Migrate, 1.6 Determinants of Migration, 1.7 The Micro-level Perspectives and Volume of Migration, 1.8 Characteristics of Migrants, 1.9 Migration during British Period, 1.10 Sources of Migration Data (A Brief History),
1.11 Estimate and Magnitude of Migration, 1.12 Effects of Migration, 1.13 Importance of Study, 1.14 Statement of the Problem, 1.15 The Study Area, 1.16 Objectives of the Study, 1.17 Hypotheses, 1.18 Scope of the Study, 1.19 Methodology of Study, 1.20 Limitation of the Study,
1.21 Chapterisation of the Study, 1.22 Conclusion, Notes, References.

2. Review of Literature. 67
2.1 Introduction, 2.2 External Migration, 2.3 Internal Migration, 2.4 Basis of Migration, 2.5 Migration due to Displacement, 2.6 Circular/Seasonal Migration, 2.7 Data on Internal Migration, 2.8 Migration and Rural Informal Sector, 2.9 Condition of Migrants and State Action, 2.10 Migration and Child Labour, 2.11 Effects of Migration, 2.12 To Reduce/Prevent Out-
Migration, 2.13 Conclusion, References.

3. Regional Profile and Field-work Area . 105
3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Topography of KBK Region, 3.3 Administrative Setup of KBK Districts, 3.4 Location and a Glance on Demography of KBK Districts, 3.5 Kalahandi, 3.6 Bolangir, 3.7 A Tale on Migration, 3.8 Koraput, 3.9 Migration in Odisha and KBK Region, 3.10 State
Policy in KBK Region for Reduction of Poverty and Regional Disparity, 3.10.1 KBK Plan, 3.10.2 Modified Area Development Approach (MADA), 3.10.3 Integrated Tribal Development Projects/Agencies (ITDPs/ITDAs), 3.10.4 Tribal Development Blocks (TDB), 3.10.5 Cluster Programme, 3.10.6 Long Term Action Plan (LTAP), 3.10.7 Orissa Tribal Employment
and Livelihood Programme (OTELP), 3.10.8 Western Orissa Development Council (WODC), 3.10.9 Western Orissa Rural Livelihood Project (WORLP), 3.10.10 Backward Region Grand Fund (BRGF), 3.10.11 Integrated Action Plan (IAP), 3.10.12 National Rural Livelihood
Mission (NRLM), 3.10.13 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 3.10.14 Working of MGNREGA in KBK, 3.10.15 Non-Government Organisation (NGO), 3.10.16 Conclusion, References.

4. Legal Framework for Labour and Migrants . 139
4.1 Introduction, 4.2 Legal Provision for Migration, 4.3 Inter-State Migration Workmen Act, 1979 (ISMW), 4.3.1 Major Provisions of ISMW Act, 1979, 4.3.2 Enforcement Machinery, 4.3.3 Recruitment Process of Inter-State Migrant Workers, 4.4 Minimum Wage Act, 4.5 Child Labour
and Migration, 4.6 Seasonal Hostels for the Children of Dadan Families, 4.7 Bonded Labour and Internal Migration, 4.7.1 Who is a Bonded Labour?, 4.7.2 Release and Rehabilitation of Bonded Labour, 4.8 Conclusion, References.

5. Data Analysis and Testing of Hypotheses . 165
5.1 Introduction, 5.2 MGNREGA and Migration, 5.3 Sample Design for the Study, 5.4 Demographic Features of Sample Households, 5.5 Social (Caste) and Religious Affiliation of Sample Households, 5.6 Educational Status of Migrants, 5.7 Landholding of Migrants Households, 5.8 Living Conditions of Migrants at Source, 5.9 Reasons for Migration, 5.10 Motivation for Migration, 5.11 Destination of Migrants, 5.12 Nature of Work of the Migrants at Destination, 5.13 Migrants Living Condition at Destination, 5.14 Treatment of Owner towards Migrants, 5.15 Role of State Labour Department, 5.16 Migrants’ Future Plan, 5.17 Testing of
Hypothesis, 5.17 Conclusion, Reference.

6. Summary, Conclusion and Policy Implications . 211
6.1 Brief Notes on the Study of Internal Migration, 6.2 Socio-economic Background of the Migrants, 6.3 Statistical Analysis on Migrants’ Income, 6.4 Policy Implications, References.

References and Selected Bibliography . 233

Appendices . 249

Index . 255





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